Finally, projects will want to share and communicate their results, and evaluate their achievements. 

Outputs are resources that the project produces based on their work and the insight they generated. They can be many different things, such as data sets, reports, academic papers, online resources like maps or other data visualisations, software, or policy recommendations, to name just a few. These result types have different levels of quality and complexity, and will consequently lead to different types of impacts. For example, an open, well-documented dataset may have a large impact on research, whereas a set of well-formulated policy recommendations will be more useful in discussions with policy makers. Projects should have set out in the Problem framing phase what kind of outputs they want to produce, and what impact they want to achieve. This should guide how they go about producing and using their results in this phase, but there may also be unexpected results that can lead to additional outputs. 

Following the open science and FAIR principles described in the Data section, all results should be openly accessible, so they can inform future research and innovation. If stakeholders are to make use of data, then they must first be able to find and access any datasets and outputs. Any dataset should include a permanent identifier such as a DOI, as well as a human readable and ideally machine-readable license. Project web-pages should have clear, visible links to external datasets and other resources (Roman et al., 2020).

Projects may also want to communicate the insight they generated to the wider public, or to specific stakeholders they have identified at the beginning of or in the course of their work. They should develop a communication strategy based on their stakeholder map, where they prioritise the most relevant stakeholders, and consider for each of them what they want to communicate to them, and what is the best way to reach them. This could include engagement activities for the wider public or local communities, like public presentations, talks, or webinars; or more targeted activities, like discussions with policy makers, giving evidence to public consultations, or discussions with students at a local school. 

Communicating insights to different stakeholders requires projects to tailor their messaging depending on the target group. For example, policy makers are rarely interested in data and detailed justifications – rather, they want to know succinctly what they should be doing and why. Therefore, the best way to communicate results to them is in brief reports leading to recommendations for defined actions that can be consumed in the space of a coffee break. 

How projects share their results will differ with the project type, as well as the audiences they want to reach.

  • In Action projects, results are commonly shared among participants and with local stakeholders (media, policy makers, community groups) to achieve the policy impact identified at the outset. The evaluation of such projects is often limited, as it may not be seen as required, if the project is not on-going. For example, Citicomplastic created a public report and held a workshop in order to raise awareness of the issues they found with the composting of bioplastic.
  • In Conservation projects, results are likely to have direct influence on policy due to direct links between the project host and policy-makers. There is a higher need for evaluation to demonstrate appropriate use of resources to funders, especially if the project is funded through tax income. For example, Noise Maps developed strong links to local communities and policy makers, which enables future discussions and projects about the issues they are interested in.
  • In Investigation projects, results are likely to be shared widely, including through formal academic publications. Evaluation and impact assessment are required to justify further funding and enable impact of the results. For example, Sonic Kayaks made all of their outputs – data, reports and presentations – publicly available, to enable future research and support the open source community.
  • In Education projects, results will not only include scientific insight that can be communicated, but also learning achievements with individual participants. Therefore, evaluation will likely include an assessment against the projects’ learning objectives. For example, the students in Students, air pollution and DIY sensing presented the results of their research projects at a public conference.
  • In Virtual projects, results are likely to be shared widely, including through formal academic publications. Evaluation is likely to be on-going, as platforms need to be maintained and continuously developed to engage participants with state-of-the-art technology.

Evaluation is crucial for any citizen science project, though it may be more relevant for longer-term projects, as it can be used to iterate and improve the project. If a project with a single goal has achieved that goal, such as a change in local policy, this may serve as a single measure of success – but relying on this alone will miss out all the other impacts the project has had. The overall goal of impact assessment is to bring about a more ecologically, socio-culturally and economically sustainable and equitable environment. ACTION has developed an impact assessment framework to assess the scientific, social, economic, political and environmental impact of citizen science projects, which is listed under Tools below.


Data visualisation tools

Grafana or Tableau are free tools for data visualisation. Projects can use them to create a large array of different visualisations from their data, such as heat maps, histograms, or even complete dashboards. Both come with extensive documentation and tutorials. 

Zenodo / ACTION Open Data Portal

Web portal where you can publish open datasets and their metadata, to make them available for the community to reuse. Keep track of the data produced/ consumed/ processed by our citizen science initiatives.

Socio-economic, political and environmental impact self-assessment tool

ACTION has developed an impact assessment framework and methodology to help citizen science projects understand what scientific, social, economic and political impact they have. The framework is still under development, and we will keep updating this page as new elements become available. Projects can already use the ACTION impact assessment methodology to understand the different types of impact, assess and record their impact to demonstrate it, for example to policy makers and potential funders. It is explained in more detail in our webinar on the ACTION impact assessment methodology.


Guiding questions

Concerning the results of their research, project managers should consider the following questions:

  • Which specific outputs will the project produce? This could be a report, an open dataset, an academic publication, a flyer to inform citizens, a business model, or many other things.
  • What are the short term and long terms social, economic, political and environmental impacts of your project?
  • Who will be interested in these results? Who should be interested?
  • How will you communicate your results to these groups?

ACTION webinars

The ACTION team has hosted several webinars on data, how it can be used and published:

  • Webinar on the open data portal, which explains how projects can use Zenodo to publish their data and other outputs.
  • Webinar on Grafana, which demonstrates a free tool that projects can use for data visualisation.
  • Slides for a talk on communication and outreach, providing guidance on how to build a communication strategy and tools to use to reach specific target groups.

Scivil Communication Guide

This guide includes many useful resources, but most importantly, walks citizen science projects through six steps to set up their communication plan.


Sonic Kayaks

The project has published all of their data – survey results and measurements – and analysis on Zenodo, making them free for anyone to use. They also used their results (from a pre-ACTION stage of the project) to write a research paper together with their participants, which explains the concept of sonic kayaks and how their manifold usage opportunities: to monitor water quality, allow people with visual impairments to kayak, or as an art installation. 


Several of the ACTION pilots presented their findings at Ars Electronica in September 2020 – a festival that celebrates Art, Technology and Society:

Summaries and videos of the presentations are available on the linked websites. All of them are fantastic examples for how citizen science projects and their results can be used to engage new, sometimes unexpected audiences.

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